16×2 LCD Display Module | How it’s Works

Hello friends! Welcome back to ElectroDuino. This blog is base on What is 16×2 LCD Display Module Sensor | How 16×2 LCD Display Module Works. Here we will discuss the Introduction to 16×2 LCD Display Module, Module pin diagram, Working Principle, Features, and applications.

Introduction

16×2 LCD is one kind of electronic device used to display the message and data. The term LCD full form is Liquid Crystal Display.  The display is named 16×2 LCD because it has 16 Columns and 2 Rows. it can be displayed (16×2=32) 32 characters in total and each character will be made of 5×8 Pixel Dots. These displays are mainly based on multi-segment light-emitting diodes.  There are a lot of combinations of display available in the market like 8×1, 8×2, 10×2, 16×1, etc. but the 16×2 LCD is widely used. These LCD modules are low cost, and programmer-friendly, therefore, is used in various DIY circuits, devices, and embedded projects.

16×2 LCD Display Module Pin Diagram

16x2 LCD Display Module Pin Diagram /Pinout
16×2 LCD Display Module Pin Diagram /Pinout
Pin NumberPin NameDescription
1Vss (Ground)VSS pin connected to microcontroller ground
2Vdd (+5 Volt)VDD pin connected to microcontroller + 5V power supply
3VE (Contrast V)Adjusts the contrast of the LCD display. It is Connected to a variable POT that can provide 0-5V power supply. Connect it to the ground to get maximum contrast.
4RS (Register Select)Toggles between Command/Data Register. Connect a microcontroller data pin and obtains either 0 or 1(0 = data mode, and 1 = command mode).
5RW (Read/Write)Used to read or write data. Normally grounded to write data to LCD
6E (Enable)This pin should be held high to execute the Read/Write process, and it is connected to the microcontroller data pin & constantly held high.
7D0 (Data Pin 0)These 8 Pins are used to sending commands or data to the LCD. These pins are connected in two-wire modes like 4-wire mode and 8-wire mode. In 4-wire mode, only four pins are connected to the microcontroller data pin 0 to 3. And in 8-wire mode, 8-pins are connected to microcontroller data pin 0 to 7.
8D1 (Data Pin 1)
9D2 (Data Pin 2)
10D3 (Data Pin 3)
11D4 (Data Pin 4)
12D5 (Data Pin 5)
13D6 (Data Pin  6)
14D7 (Data Pin 7)
15LED + (+5V)This is the positive terminal of the backlight LED of the display. It’s connected to +5V to turn on the backlight LED.
16LED – (Ground)This is the negative terminal of the backlight LED of the display. It’s connected to the ground to turn on the backlight LED.

16×2 LCD Display Module Hardware Overview

16x2 LCD Display Module row & column
16×2 LCD Display Module row & column

These 16 x 2 LCD display modules are constant of 16 Columns and 2 Rows. The 1st row of this module has a total of 16 columns 0 to 15 and the position of the first row is 0. Also, the 2nd row has a total of 16 columns 0 to 15 and the position of the second row is position is 1. So the total numbers of the column are 16 x 2 = 32. Its means 16 x 2 LCD module can display 32 characters at the same time.  

16x2 LCD Display 5x8 Pixel
16×2 LCD Display 5×8 Pixel

Each column will be made of 5×8 Pixel Dots. So every character will be made of 5×8 = 40 Pixel Dots. It means total display has (32×40) 1280 Pixels.

16x2 LCD Display Module Interface IC HD44780
16×2 LCD Display Module Interface IC HD44780

It will be a very complicated task to handle everything with the help of a microcontroller. So an Interface IC like HD44780 is used, which is mounted on the backside of the LCD Module. The function of this IC is to get the Commands and Data from the microcontroller and process them to display meaningful information onto the LCD Screen.

Specifications

ParameterValue
Operating Voltage4.7V-5.3V
Operating Current1mA with no backlight
ControllerHD47780
Number of columns16 each row, total 16 x2 = 32 columns
Number of rows2
Every character pixel box 5×8 pixel
Number of Character32
Character font-size0.125″W x 0.200″H
Work Modes4-bit & 8-bit
Backlight LED colorBlue or Green
Number of Pins16
Module PCB Size80 x 36 x 10 (LxWxH) mm.
Display Bezel72 x 25mm (2.8 x 1″)

Application

  • it is used in many electronic projects and devices to display messages.

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